Key Takeaways: Types of Bricks

When you're selecting bricks for your project, it's essential to understand the various types available and their specific properties. Below is a concise guide that will help you navigate through the different brick options.

1. Traditional and Modern Bricks

  • Traditional bricks like Sun-Dried and Mud Bricks represent the oldest, eco-friendly construction methods.
  • Modern advancements include Concrete Bricks for uniformity and Hollow Bricks for insulation.

2. Sustainability and Environmental Considerations

  • CEBS and Burnt Fly Ash Bricks highlight a shift towards sustainable and eco-friendly building materials.

3. Specialized Applications

- Paver Bricks for pavements, Cover Blocks for concrete structures, and Engineering Bricks for enhanced strength demonstrate the specialization in brick manufacturing for specific uses.

4. Innovative Building Solutions

- The use of Interlocking Bricks offers innovative building techniques with easier assembly and reduced need for mortar.

5. Aerated Concrete Blocks for Efficiency

- Sand AAC and Fly Ash AAC Blocks are notable for their lightweight nature and thermal insulation properties, suitable for modern building requirements.

6. High-Temperature Resilience

- Fire Bricks are specially designed to withstand extreme temperatures, essential for furnaces and fireplaces.

Overall, the variety of bricks available today—from traditional to technologically advanced—illustrates the evolving nature of building materials to meet diverse construction needs, environmental concerns, and efficiency demands in the industry.

Concrete Bricks

Concrete bricks are a versatile building material made from cement, sand, water, and aggregates. They are favored for their uniform shape and size, which can make your construction process smoother and more efficient.

Raw Materials

The raw materials for concrete bricks include:

  • Cement: Acts as the binder.
  • Sand: Fills voids and provides bulk.
  • Fine aggregates: Enhance the brick's texture and appearance.
  • Water: Increase the humidity of the raw materials to allow for better cohesion of the mixture.

Making Process

To make concrete bricks, you'll follow these steps:

  1. Mixing: Combine the raw materials in specific ratios.
  2. Molding: Pour the mixture into molds of the desired shape by concrete block molding machine.
  3. Curing: Allow the bricks to set and achieve full strength through a process called curing, which may take several days.


Concrete bricks are mainly used in structural masonry, including:

  • Building facades
  • Partition walls
  • Paving

Concrete Hollow Bricks

When you're selecting bricks for your construction project, concrete hollow bricks are a best choice due to their unique structure and characteristics. These bricks are primarily made from a mixture of cement, sand, water, and possibly lightweight aggregates. Their hollow centers not only reduce weight but also improve insulation.

concrete hollow blocks photo

Raw Materials

  • Cement
  • Sand
  • Water
  • Aggregates (Optional)

Making Process

Your concrete hollow bricks are manufactured using a concrete block making machine. First, the raw materials are combined to create a concrete mix. This mix is then poured into molds, creating the hollow cavities that are the hallmark of these bricks.


Here's what's interesting: despite their name, hollow bricks are quite sturdy. They're commonly used in:

  • Building foundation and wall structures
  • Facades for aesthetic appeal
  • Partition walls due to sound insulation properties

This type of brick is popular in large structures because the hollow spaces make them lighter and easier to handle. And yes, those spaces aren't just for weight—they’re also ideal for running wiring and piping through, making your construction process a bit smoother.

Remember, using concrete hollow bricks can be an energy-efficient and cost-effective choice for both residential and commercial construction projects.

Lightweight Easier to handle and transport
Improved Insulation Helps maintain internal temperatures
Versatile Suitable for various types of construction

Paver Bricks

When you think of creating a charming walkway or patio, paver bricks are your go-to option. These pavers are easy to install and maintain, making them a favorite for both DIY enthusiasts and professional landscapers.

Raw Materials:

Clay Paver bricks are typically made from a blend of clay and shale, fired in a kiln.

clay paver bricks

Concrete paver bricks use concrete, cement, sand as raw materials. The choice of material affects both the appearance and the durability of the pavers.

concrete paver bricks

Making Process:

The process of clay paver bricks begins with the raw materials being crushed and ground, then mixed with water to form clay. This mixture is molded into the desired shapes, and then the bricks are dried and fired at high temperatures to set their form.

Concrete pavers is made by a hydraulic paver brick machine, also need concrete mixer to mix raw materials, then use the mold to form.

Application: You can use paver bricks in numerous outdoor projects. They are a popular choice for driveways, walkways, and patio areas due to their strength and versatility. Plus, they come in a myriad of colors and styles to match your personal taste and complement your home's exterior.

Installation Tips:

  • Prepare a good base: Start with a solid, well-compacted base of gravel and sand.
  • Proper spacing: Leave enough space between pavers for sand to be added, but not too much to create trip hazards.
  • Cutting pavers: Use a mason's chisel or a mechanical saw for precision cutting.

By choosing paver bricks, you're opting for a durable, long-lasting solution for your outdoor spaces that are as functional as they are beautiful.

Interlocking Bricks

Interlocking bricks are a modern style of brick designed for building more durable and sustainable structures. These bricks interlock, which provides added stability and strength to constructions.

Raw Materials:

  • Concrete Interlocking Bricks: Your concrete interlocking bricks are typically composed of a mix including cement, sand, and stone dust. They are suitable for a variety of construction projects, offering a sturdy finish.

concrete paver bricks for building

  • Soil Interlocking Bricks: Meanwhile, soil interlocking bricks are more eco-friendly, made mostly from laterite soil and cement. They are an excellent choice for environmentally conscious construction.

soil interlocking bricks

Making Process:

  1. Mixing: The first step involves mixing raw materials in correct proportions.
  2. Molding: Once mixed, the materials are then poured into moldings, shaped to interlock with one another.
  3. Compression: High-pressure machines compress the mixture, to enhance the brick's density and strength.
  4. Curing: Your bricks are left to cure, gaining hardness over time.


  • Residential and Commercial Buildings: Thanks to their interlocking feature, these bricks promote easy alignment and increase construction speed. This makes them a popular choice for both residential and commercial building projects.
  • Sustainable Development: Soil interlocking bricks, in particular, keep your room temperature moderate, due to their thermal radiance. They support sustainable development goals by reducing the need for air conditioning.

Remember, when choosing the type of interlocking brick for your project, consider the environmental impact, and the specific needs of your construction task at hand.

Cover Bricks

cover bricks

Definition of Cover Blocks

What They Are: Cover blocks are small, sturdy units used in construction, particularly in concrete and reinforcement works. They serve to maintain the structural integrity and positioning of reinforcing bars (rebars) within concrete structures.

Raw Materials and Manufacturing Process

Raw Materials: These blocks are made from a mixture of cement, sand, and water.

Manufacturing Process: They can be formed using two methods:

  1. A cover block making machine.
  2. Plastic block molds.


  • Elevation of Rebars: They elevate rebars in precast concrete, preventing the rebars from adhering to the bottom or edges of the concrete parts.
  • Protection of Rebars: Their use is crucial to prevent the exposure of steel bars to air and moisture, which can lead to corrosion, weakening the rebars and thus the overall structure.
  • Versatile Use in Construction: They are used in various construction scenarios such as road construction and frame buildings, with specific placement and spacing guidelines to ensure structural integrity and longevity.

Sand Lime Bricks

sand lime bricks

When you’re considering your building material options, particularly for a robust masonry project, you might want to consider sand lime bricks. This type of brick is created from a mixture of sand, lime, and water. The raw materials are precisely measured and then mixed to form a homogeneous mixture.

Here's a simplified making process for sand lime bricks:

  1. Firstly, your main components — sand, lime, and water — are mixed and molded to your desired shape.
  2. Following the initial preparation, this brick then undergoes a high-pressure steam curing process known as autoclaving. This is where the magic happens: the heat and pressure cause a chemical reaction that binds the materials together, resulting in a strong and homogeneous product.
Characteristic Description
Color Typically a uniform grey or white.
Texture Smooth, with a fine finish.
Load-bearing High load-bearing capacity.
Mortar Requirement Requires less mortar due to precision in size.

As for applications, sand lime bricks are praised for their aesthetic appeal and durability. Thanks to their uniform color and texture, they lend a sophisticated and clean look to the construction. They serve you well in both load-bearing and non-load-bearing walls, and are particularly valued for:

  • Structural walls
  • Facades
  • Partition walls

Their fine finish can be leveraged for both interior and exterior walls, often reducing finishing costs since they require less plastering. So, if you’re after a brick that's strong and versatile, with a tidy finish, sand lime bricks could be an ideal match for your building needs

Sand AAC Blocks

sand aac blocks

When you're considering materials for your next construction project, sand AAC blocks, or Autoclaved Aerated Concrete blocks, offer a modern alternative to traditional bricks. These lightweight, precast building materials are made from sand, water, lime, cement, and an expansion agent that causes the fresh mixture to rise like dough.

Raw Materials:

  • Sand: the major volume of the material
  • Lime: for workability and strength
  • Cement: the binding agent
  • Water: activates cement
  • Expansion agent: often aluminum powder for aeration

The making process of sand AAC blocks is quite intriguing. You'll begin by finely grinding the sand and then mixing it with lime, cement, and water. The expansion agent is added last, causing the mixture to foam. It's then poured into molds where it reacts and expands. After pre-curing, the hardened, yet still soft material is cut into blocks of desired sizes, and finally, it's subjected to high-pressure steam curing in autoclaves. This process gives sand AAC blocks high strength and durability.

You can use sand AAC blocks in a variety of applications:

  • Walls: Interior and exterior
  • Floors and roofs: Lightweight panels
  • Cladding: Insulative exterior finishes

Here's a straightforward breakdown:

Advantages Description
Lightweight Easier to handle and transport due to low density.
Insulating Enhances thermal efficiency, keeping your home cooler in summer and warmer in winter.
Fire Resistant Offers excellent resistance against fire.
Earthquake Safe Due to their lightness and stability, they're suitable for seismic zones.

Remember, before using sand AAC blocks, make sure your design accommodates their unique qualities and that the construction team is primed to work with this innovative material.

Fly Ash AAC Blocks

fly ash AAC blocks

Fly Ash AAC Blocks, or Autoclaved Aerated Concrete blocks,are made using a variety of raw materials, including fly ash, cement, lime, water, and an aerating agent. The making process involves mixing these components and then casting them into molds.

Once in the mold, AAC blocks are subjected to high pressure in an autoclave, which helps in giving them a solid structure and excellent durability. What you get after the autoclaving process is a lightweight block that can be easily worked with.

Here are some quick points about their application:

  • Construction Speed: Due to their size, AAC blocks can speed up the construction process considerably.
  • Insulation Properties: They offer good thermal insulation, which can help in reducing your energy bills.
  • Eco-friendly: Utilizing fly ash, a byproduct from power plants, AAC blocks contribute to waste management.
Properties Details
Size Larger than traditional clay bricks
Strength High compressive strength
Weight Lighter, aiding in ease of use
Installation Quick and efficient
Environmental Impact Low; promotes recycling

Remember, while they're great for non-load bearing walls, you’ll want to consult with a professional to ensure they're the right choice for your specific project!

Facing Bricks

facing bricks wall

Facing bricks are the materials you'll most likely consider for the exterior look of your construction projects. They're called "facing" because they form the face of the building, the part you see first. They aren't just functional; they offer aesthetic appeal with their wide range of colors, textures, and styles.

Raw Materials:
Facing bricks are primarily made from clay. To ensure durability, they undergo a firing process. Some might include other materials for specific properties, but clay remains the staple component.

Making Process:
The creation of facing bricks includes the following steps:

  1. Preparation of clay: The clay is cleaned and mixed with water to the right consistency.
  2. Moulding: The clay is shaped into bricks, often through extrusion for wirecut bricks or by hand for handmade stocks.
  3. Drying: The shaped bricks are left to dry to remove moisture.
  4. Firing: The bricks are fired in a kiln at high temperatures to harden them.

Facing bricks are used where appearance is important. They protect your walls from the elements and contribute to insulation. Whether you are working on a small project such as a garden wall or a significant construction, you can find a type that fits from common wirecut bricks to more unique and rustic-looking handmade bricks.

Keep in mind, the right facing brick can significantly increase your property's kerb appeal and ultimately, its value. Choose wisely to match the style you desire and the durability your building needs.

Engineering Bricks

engineering bricks

When you're tackling a construction project that demands robust materials, engineering bricks are your go-to option. These bricks stand out for their impressive strength and low water absorption rate, making them ideal for structures that require a high level of durability.

Raw Materials: Engineering bricks are made primarily from clay and shale. These raw materials undergo a process that includes high-temperature firing, resulting in a denser, stronger brick.

Making Process:

  • Forming: The clay is formed into the shape of the brick; typically, this is done using molds.
  • Drying: Once shaped, the bricks are dried to remove moisture.
  • Firing: The crucial step is firing the bricks at temperatures much higher than those used for regular bricks, often exceeding 1,200 degrees Celsius.

This intense heat treatment ensures that the bricks have a very dense and strong finishing.

engineering bricks for sale

Application: Here's where engineering bricks shine:

  • Structural Support: They are often employed in civil engineering works that are exposed to ground moisture and in conditions requiring strength, such as retaining walls.
  • Damp Proofing: Their low porosity makes them an excellent choice for damp-proof courses.

In short, if your project involves any situation where you expect high loads or encounters with moisture, engineering bricks could be your best bet. They're resilient and dependable, upholding their integrity where other bricks might falter.

Sun-Dried Bricks

sun dried mud bricks

Sun-dried bricks, also known as unburnt bricks, are one of the oldest building materials you'll come across. They have been used since ancient times, originating from regions like Egypt over 6000 years ago. Making these bricks involves a simple process that you can even try yourself if you're looking to undertake a DIY project with a historical twist.

How They Are Made:

  1. Clay Preparation: First, you'll need to procure a suitable type of clay and mix it thoroughly with water until you achieve a consistent, moldable material.
  2. Molding: Using a mold, shape the clay into the traditional brick shape.
  3. Drying: Lay the molded bricks out to dry in direct sunlight. This process can take several days, depending on the climate and weather conditions.


  • Durability: Not as durable as fired bricks; traditionally used for temporary structures or in regions with minimal rainfall.
  • Strength: They have a lower compressive strength, making them less suitable for load-bearing walls.
  • Insulation: Offers decent insulation properties due to the air pockets within the clay.

Common Uses:

  • Small sheds or outbuildings
  • Walls or fences in dry climates
  • Garden paths or low-traffic walkways

Find out more about these bricks from the perspective of a construction expert on the The Constructor.

Remember, if you're planning a project that requires a more resilient material, you might want to consider other types of bricks designed for permanent construction. Sun-dried bricks are perfect for adding a rustic charm and historical authenticity to your builds, but they are best used in the right context and climate conditions.

Mud Bricks

mud bricks

Mud bricks, or adobe bricks, offer a simple and eco-friendly building material that you can use in your construction projects. Primarily, raw materials for mud bricks include soil with a significant clay content, straw, and water. These natural materials make mud bricks a sustainable choice for environmentally conscious builders.

When making mud bricks, the process is relatively straightforward. Mix the soil and water to create a thick mud, then add sand to give structure and straw to increase tensile strength. Here's a quick guide:

  1. Combine:
    • Soil (with clay)
    • Water
    • Sand
    • Straw or other fibrous materials
  1. Mold: Pour the mixture into molds to form bricks.
  2. Dry: Leave the bricks to dry in the sun, typically for around five days.

Beware of direct sunlight for prolonged periods, as this might cause cracking. If you notice cracks forming, covering the bricks helps prevent further damage.

In terms of application, mud bricks are ideal for warm, dry climates where they perform well in regulating indoor temperatures. While they aren't as common in modern city architecture, they're perfect for low-rise buildings, garden walls, and other outdoor structures. Thanks to their insulating properties, they can keep your home cool during the day and retain heat at night.

Remember that while mud bricks are durable, they require protection from excessive rain and moisture. Applying a weather-resistant finish or building a good foundation and roof overhang can extend the lifespan of your mud brick structures.



Compressed Earth Blocks (CEBs) are your eco-friendly alternative to traditional building bricks. By using local raw materials like subsoil, non-expansive clay, and aggregate such as sand, you’re not just building structures, but also contributing to sustainable practices.

The making process of CEBs involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation: Mix the subsoil, clay, and sand. Ensure the right moisture content for optimal compression.
  2. Stabilization: Add a small quantity of cement or lime to enhance the brick's durability.
  3. Compression: Utilize a hydraulic or mechanical press to shape the stabilized mixture into dense bricks.
  4. Curing: Allow the bricks to cure, gaining strength before they're ready for use.

Here’s a quick glance at their application:

  • Residential buildings: For your home construction, giving it a distinctive, natural look.
  • Community projects: Ideal for schools and clinics in rural areas where traditional materials are costly or scarce.
  • Landscaping: Great for decorative garden walls or retaining structures.

Embrace CEBs for their lower environmental impact and energy efficiency during production compared to conventional bricks. While they may have a drier mix and can require a special press to form, the benefits of durability and sustainability make CEBs a compelling choice for your construction needs.

Refractory or Fire Bricks

refractory bricks or fire bricks

Refractory bricks, also known as fire bricks, are specially designed for high-temperature environments. These bricks are perfect for furnaces, kilns, and fireplaces because they can withstand extreme heat without melting or incinerating.

Raw Materials: Fire bricks are typically made from fireclay, a type of clay that can handle high temperatures, and other materials like silica, alumina, and refractories such as magnesite and chromite. They can be categorized by their content, such as high alumina bricks or chromite bricks, which include chromium, iron oxide, and bauxite in variable proportions.

Making Process: Your fire bricks are crafted through a process called firing, where raw materials are shaped and then heated to temperatures usually above 1000°C. This sintering stage solidifies the bricks, imbuing them with their heat-resistant properties.

Application: The brilliance of fire bricks lies in their versatility. You can spot them lining the interiors of blast furnaces or acting as a robust barrier in glass-making kilns. Their thermal resistance makes them essential for applications under constant stress from high temperatures and aggressive environments.

Here's a quick breakdown of fire brick types:

  • Acidic Fire Bricks: Resist acidic environments, often used in areas where chemical resistance is vital.
  • Basic Fire Bricks: Better suited for areas exposed to basic (alkaline) conditions.
  • Neutral Fire Bricks: These are a go-to for general purpose, balancing both acidic and basic resistance.

By selecting the right type of refractory brick, you're ensuring the longevity and effectiveness of your high-temperature applications.

Burnt Clay Bricks

burnt clay bricks

When you're considering materials for your construction project, burnt clay bricks represent a timeless choice. As the name suggests, the primary raw material for these bricks is clay, which is formed into the desired shape and then subjected to high temperatures in a kiln. This process results in a durable and strong brick, highly sought after for various construction purposes.

How They're Made:

  1. Preparation: Clay is excavated and then ground and mixed with water to the right consistency.
  2. Molding: The clay is shaped into bricks using a mold.
  3. Drying: The formed bricks are dried to remove excess moisture.
  4. Firing: Bricks are fired in a kiln at high temperatures to harden them.


  • Structural walls: Thanks to their durability, they are perfect for load-bearing walls.
  • Facade: Their aesthetic appeal is ideal for exterior surfaces.
  • Pavements: With their strength, they are often used for paving applications.

These bricks come in different classes, with first-class burnt clay bricks being of the highest quality, known for their uniform shape and smooth surfaces. On the other hand, second-class bricks may be a bit rougher, but they are still perfectly functional for construction where the brick will be plastered or otherwise covered.

Remember, your choice in brick can affect the longevity and appearance of your project; burnt clay bricks offer you a robust and attractive option that has been a staple in construction for centuries.

Burnt Fly Ash Bricks

burnt fly ash bricks

Fly ash, a byproduct of burning coal, serves as the primary material in burnt fly ash bricks. You'll find this modern brick type particularly interesting if you favor sustainability and eco-friendliness in construction materials.

Raw Materials

The key ingredients that make up these bricks include:

  • Fly ash (~60%)
  • Sand (~30%)
  • Cement (~10%)

These proportions can vary based on the manufacturer’s formula. The choice of materials contributes to the environmental aspect of these bricks, utilizing industrial waste productively.

Making Process

Here's a simplified overview of the process:

  1. The raw materials are blended together.
  2. The mixture is then molded into the shape of bricks.
  3. These bricks are dried to remove moisture.
  4. Finally, the bricks are heated in a kiln at high temperatures to achieve stability—this is known as the sintering process.


Your project's needs will dictate whether burnt fly ash bricks are a suitable choice. Here's what you need to know about their application:

  • Ideal for non-load bearing walls due to their light weight.
  • Great for insulation, as they can help keep buildings cool.
  • They are used in all kinds of constructions, from residential to commercial.

Remember, while these bricks are strong and durable, the actual performance can depend on the specific manufacturing process and quality standards upheld by the producer.


You've explored a diverse array of brick types, each with tailored attributes for various construction needs. Traditional clay bricks offer a classic aesthetic and enduring strength, making them suitable for general building work. Concrete bricks provide versatility and are often selected for their uniformity and durability. For a more environmentally conscious option, sand-lime bricks present an excellent choice due to their smoother finish and precision.

Consider insulation properties when contemplating energy efficiency for your project. Bricks like fly ash can also be important for eco-friendly construction. For aesthetic versatility, facing bricks come in numerous finishes and colors suited for external walls.

Your selection should align with your project's specific demands for structural integrity, design, and sustainability. By understanding these differences, you can make informed decisions that will influence both the practical and visual quality of your construction endeavors. Remember, the right type of brick not only ensures stability but also adds to the aesthetic appeal and energy efficiency of your building.

chao zhang

Author: Chao Zhang

I am Chao Zhang, I have been working in the brick making industry for over 10 years. I have a deep understanding and research on various models of block making machines, especially automatic brick machines, concrete block machines, compressed earth block machines, clay brick machines, cement brick machines. I have a special understanding of this industry. I can help my clients choose the suitable brick machine and assist them in designing and building a brick production factory. If you want to know everything about brick making machines, please contact me. I am happy to help you.